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?Carl Rogers
by By Saul McLeod published 2007. updated 2014
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. but additional that for a person to "grow", they want an environment that delivers them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood).
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not produce as they should, noticeably like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water.
Rogers believed that every person can gain their goals, wishes and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took location. This was a single of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology and for a person to achieve their potential a variety of factors must be satisfied.
Self Actualization
" The organism has an individual general tendency and striving - to actualize, keep, and enhance the experiencing organism ” (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both of those psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do due to the fact that with the way we perceive our situation. "As no an individual else can know how we perceive, we are the most efficient experts on ourselves."
Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have an individual simple motive, that could be the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and accomplish the highest degree of 'human-beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its comprehensive potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and arrive at their potential if their environment is decent enough.
However, unlike a flower, the potential from the individual human is unique, and we are meant to grow in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are inherently ideal and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or external constraints override the valuing technique. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to realize self-actualization they must be inside of a state of congruence.
This would mean that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self ” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image ). Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood encounter.
The Fully Functioning Person
Rogers believed that every person could accomplish their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When they did so self-actualization took put. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be self-actualize, which just isn't all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This indicates that the person is in touch with the below and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing.
In a multitude of ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and a particular that people do not ultimately gain. It is wrong to think of this as an conclude or completion of life’s journey; rather it is regarded as a technique of always becoming and changing.
Rogers identified 5 characteristics from the fully functioning person:
1. Open to undergo . each positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence mechanisms).
two. Existential living . in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the current, not always searching back again to the past or forward to the longer term (i.e. living to the moment).
3. Trust feelings . feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s have decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.
four. Creativity . creative thinking and risk taking are benefits of the person’s life. A person does not perform safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences.
5. Fulfilled life . person is happy and satisfied with life, and always trying for new challenges and experiences.
For Rogers, fully functioning people are effectively adjusted, nicely balanced and interesting to know. Often these people are great achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning person serves as a product of Western culture. In other cultures, this kind of as Eastern cultures, the achievement in the group is valued a good deal more highly than the achievement of any a person person.
Personality Improvement
Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent list of perceptions and beliefs about oneself".
The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner personality, and may possibly be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary resources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others.
According to Rogers (1959), we choose to feel really, practical knowledge and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each individual other, the a good deal more consistent or congruent we are as well as higher our perception of self-worth.
A person is claimed to be in a very state of incongruence if several of the totality of their working experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted with the self-image.
The humanistic procedure states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept contains three elements:
Self worth (or self-esteem ) - what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and have been formed from the interaction from the child with the mother and father.
Self-image - How we see ourselves, which is important to high quality psychological health. Self-image involves the influence of our body image on inner personality. In a straightforward stage, we could perhaps perceive ourselves as a proper or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks, feels and behaves inside world.
Ideal self - This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic - i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is just not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Self Worth and Positive Regard
Carl Rogers (1951) considered the child as having two simple needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.
How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance equally to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can enjoy goals and ambitions in life and attain self-actualization.
Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very great to very affordable. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has excessive self-worth, that is certainly, has confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.
A person with lower self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life is generally painful and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people.
Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and have been formed from the interaction with the child with the mother and father. As a child grows more mature, interactions with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth.
Rogers believed that we want to be regarded positively by others; we require to think valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction amongst unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (additionally, the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is not really withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake.
The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels no charge to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to having it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualize are far more probable to have received unconditional positive regard from others, certainly their parents in childhood.
Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Hence the child shouldn't be loved for that person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s).
For the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is most likely only to have seasoned conditional positive regard as a child.
Congruence
A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences for the person. Hence, a difference may exist among a person’s ideal self and actual practical knowledge. This is called incongruence.
Where a person’s ideal self and actual expertise are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people expertise a certain amount of incongruence.
The event of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to realize self-actualization they must be within a state of congruence.
According to Rogers, we plan to believe, adventure and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.
The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to every other, the even more consistent or congruent we are and also higher our feeling of self-worth. A person is claimed to be in a very state of incongruence if many of the totality of their encounter is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted around the self-image.
Incongruence is "a discrepancy somewhere between the actual know-how in the organism also, the self-picture on the individual insofar as it represents that knowledge.
As we prefer to see ourselves in ways that are consistent with our self-image, we may use defense mechanisms like denial or repression in order to believe less threatened by a few of what we consider to be our undesirable feelings. A person whose self-concept is incongruent with her or his real feelings and experiences will defend considering the fact that the truth hurts.
Carl Rogers Quotes
"When I glimpse within the world I'm pessimistic, but when I appearance at people I am optimistic."
"The very essence on the creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to judge it" (Rogers, 1961, p. 351).
"I have gradually come to just one negative summary about the first-rate life. It would seem to me that the decent life shouldn't be any fixed state. It will not be, in my estimation, a state of virtue, or contentment, or nirvana, or happiness. It is not really a condition in which the individual is adjusted or fulfilled or actualized. To utilize psychological terms, it is just not a state of drive-reduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis" (Rogers, 1967, p. 185-186).
"The positive life can be a course of action, not a state of being. It may be a direction not a destination" (Rogers, 1967, p. 187).
References
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its latest practice, implications and theory . London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed inside client-centered framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of the science. Vol. 3: Formulations in the person additionally, the social context . New York: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists perspective of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. Stevens, B. Gendlin, E. T. Shlien, J. M. & Van Dusen, W. (1967). Person to person: The problem of being human: A new trend in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real People Push.
How to cite this article:
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html dissertation writing uk

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